Banana Farming In India 2023: The banana is the most ubiquitous and oldest fruit on the planet. It is a well-known fruit and the second-biggest fruit business in India. It is a nutrient-rich, tasty, and readily digested fruit. It is open all year round. Bananas are high in carbohydrates and minerals including calcium, potassium, magnesium, salt, and phosphorus. Apart from fresh fruits, they may also be taken in processed forms like chips, powder, flakes, and so on. Chopped banana pseudostems are fed to the cattle. The leaves may also be made into a platter. Bananas belong to the Musaceae family and are botanically known as Musa cavendish and Musa paradisiaca.
Best Environment for Banana Plant
Bananas need a warm, humid, and wet environment since they are tropical crops. Temperatures ranging from 10 to 400 degrees Celsius are ideal, with a relative humidity of 90% or more. It is very frost sensitive and cannot survive in dry circumstances. Plant growth, as well as fruit output and quality, are all affected by desiccating winds.
Banana is a heavy feeder crop in terms of soil. As a consequence, soil fertility is very important. Agriculture thrives on soils that are rich, well-drained, and free-working, with a high organic matter concentration. The pH of the soil should range between 6 and 8.
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Banana shipments were predicted to total 23.3 million metric tonnes globally. About 15% of total worldwide banana output is sold on the international market; the remainder is eaten domestically, mostly in big producing nations such as India, China, and Brazil, as well as in certain African countries where bananas play an important part in people’s diets. With a CAGR of 4.1 percent, worldwide banana production reached 116.0 million metric tonnes. As food and beverage technology evolves and health awareness rises, consumers’ emphasis has switched to sanitary and nutritious food products.
Bananas are high in vitamin B6, vitamin C, manganese, potassium, dietary fiber, and protein. Bananas are used in a variety of foods, including morning cereals, ice cream, and other sweets, in addition to raw usage. Banana demand is predicted to rise as a consequence of its various health advantages. Bananas are one of the world’s most traded fruits. Commercially accessible edible bananas do not generate viable seeds for replication. As a result, suckers and sword suckers with thin leaves are often used to spread bananas. Effective propagation material may be made from the rhizomes of both fruited and non-fruited plants that have at least one healthy bud.
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How to Plant Banana Tree
Planting: There are two methods for planting bananas. Both the pit and furrow techniques are used. South India plants from February to May, and North India plants from July to August. Except for the summer, it is possible to perform it at any time of year in South India. Tall cultivars should be planted 3×3 meters apart, and dwarf kinds 2×2 meters apart.
The banana plant is a heavy feeder that thrives on waste. Banana plants develop quickly and have a limited lifespan. As a consequence, utilizing fast-growing fertilizers is preferable. In Maharashtra, 100 g N, 40 g P2O5, and 100 g K2O are advised per plant. P2O5 and K2O are applied at the time of planting, whereas N is applied in three separate dosages three, four, and five months later.
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Among the concerns are the following:
- Desuckering is a critical stage in banana development. This method is used to eliminate undesirable suckers that form around the plant’s base. It is accomplished by cutting the suckers at ground level and then spraying kerosene (2-3 drops) to destroy the growth point of the pseudostem.
- Bamboo propping is an important cultural practice for providing correct support to plants. It is done to prevent plants from overturning owing to heavy winds.
- Wrapping: To protect the fruits from sunburn, scorching breezes, and dust, they are wrapped. Wrapping also improves the color of the fruit.
- Short bananas are harvested 12 to 15 months after planting, whereas tall bananas are harvested 15 to 18 months after planting. The fruit grows plump, angles fill in entirely, giving a metallic sound when tapped, top leaves dry up, and fruit color changes from deep green to pale green.
- Tall cultivars like Poovan produce 15-25 tonnes per hectare, whilst Dwarf Cavenshish produces 25-50 tonnes per hectare. It may be kept for three weeks at a temperature slightly higher than 550 degrees Fahrenheit and relative humidity of 85-95%.
The following are the primary banana types cultivated in India.
- The most significant commercial variety is Poovan, which is grown in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and West Bengal. In Maharashtra, it is also known as lal velchi. It is tolerant of Panama wilt.
- Dwarf Cavendish, commonly known as Basarai, is a dwarf cultivar. It is not susceptible to Panama fever. It’s a high-yielding cultivar with big, high-quality fruits.
- Robusta or Harisal: When mature, the fruit color stays green. It is the most popular type for export.
- Rasthali or Mutheli: This cultivar is exceptional, despite being prone to Panama disease.
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There are the following banana diseases:
- Fusarium oxysporum, a soil-borne fungus, causes Panama wilt. Symptoms include yellowing leaves and cracking and breaking of the pseudostem. The primary technique of control is the removal of unhealthy plants. Developing resistant cultivars such as Dwarf Cavendish. The soil was treated in 0.85% Vapam and 3000 PPM mercuric chloride in the nursery.
- The aphid Pentalonia nigroneruosa carries the virus that causes Bunchy Top. Little, thin, erect leaves with a short petioles are indications of infected plants. Plants remain tilted.
Among the prevention techniques include the removal and burning of sick plants. Weed control spraying with 2-4, D.
The following insects are significant pests:
- The adult and grub stages of the rootstock weevil are the most harmful.
- Grub bores into a fungus- or bacteria-infected stem, causing harm.
Healthy suckers and rhizomes should be used as control measures. Before planting, apply 0.65% to the pit. Lindane at a concentration of 60-80 g/pit. Spray the sucker with 0.05% endosulfan after soaking it in 0.1% Lindane solution.
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