Sagwan Tree Farming: Sagwan (Teak) is a Lamiaceae (tropical hardwood) species. It is India’s most valuable and costly wood crop. It is a deciduous tall tree with grey to greyish brown branches that may grow up to 40 meters tall. Sagwan planting started in India in 1842, and Chatu Menon, a resident of Kerala state, is known as the “Father of Indian Teak Planting.” It is the most important hardwood and is used to create furniture, plywood, various types of construction poles, shipbuilding, and so on.
What are the numerous types of Sagwan / Segum trees?
Based on teak’s scientific names
- Tectona grandis is a South and Southeast Asian native teak. This species is currently designated as endangered due to intensive commercial collection.
- Dahat teak is a Tectona Hamiltonian species. It grows in Burma and is threatened.
How much money/profit can be produced by growing Sagwan wood?
If you are ready to devote time and effort, farming and agribusiness of Sagwan wood / teak wood may be fairly lucrative. A Sagwan tree takes 12-15 years to mature. Sagwan plants are developed utilizing tissue culture, which results in high-quality, disease-free plants.
How many teak trees grow on an acre?
On one acre of agricultural land, tissue-grown Sagwan plants may produce 520 to 540 sagwan trees / teak wood trees. To obtain this yield, the spacing between the plants should be 8 feet 10 feet. On average, one acre of land may generate 500 trees.
A tissue-produced Sagwan plant/teak seedling typically costs between 150 and 200 Indian rupees. After 15 to 20 years, a fully matured Sagwan tree sells for an average of 30,000 INR. The number of trees that may be planted in one acre (500-540) can create a total revenue of 1.5 to 2 crore Indian rupees. Profitability may vary based on upkeep and care since proper watering and maintenance are essential.
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Because of its potential benefits, teak is widely sought after in both local and international markets. Teakwood appropriation is mostly governed by the environment, terrain, and soil of a certain region. On a worldwide scale, teak wood is often transported in all directions.
It has also been shown in Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Indonesia, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Nigeria, the West Indies, Honduras, the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, and Panama.
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Teak tree plantation
It is most often cultivated in India’s peninsular region, although it has also been planted in non-traditional places in northern and northeastern states. Since India’s finest quality teak-producing zones are in the country’s heart, the brand name CP Teak was awarded to top-grade teak supplied from the current situation with Madhya Pradesh.
It is native to South and Southeast Asia, including India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Burma, but it has naturalized and spread to a number of African and Caribbean nations. Burma accounts for more than 33% of global teak output.
It is one of the most significant hardwoods in the world, used for furniture, bureau manufacture, different degrees of compressed wood, framing, a wide range of development, shafts, piles, transportation building, and a variety of other purposes.
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Teak Tree Care Directions
While it enjoys damp, warm temperatures and humidity, the sagwan plant is a notable tree of wet environments. It can withstand temperature extremes (13-44°C), although growth is greatest between 13-17°C.
It operates effectively in the 1200-2500 mm precipitation zone. Teak wood planting is affected by both the zone and the kind of planting, such as block or bund planting. For block planting, the suggested spacing is 2 2 m, providing for 2500 plants per hectare. Germination takes 30-40 days.
The percentage of germination rises from 60% to 80%. Teak development requires the use of robust planting stocks. Plant separation may also be maintained at 2 m in lines in bund manors. The standard planting zone for the block manor should be 0.2 hectares or 500 trees for each unit. Teak germination is limited by helpless germination due to the hard and thick covering of the seed.
The application of caustic treatment, alternate dousing and drying, mechanical approach, and cow dung slurry treatment all boosted the rate of germination. Plants may be cultivated in pots, covered with Polythene, or just put on the beach. Teak plants are also available at local nurseries, which the majority of individuals buy and plant on their land.
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Planting Directions for Teak Trees
Plant healthy planting stocks at 2m x 2m, 2.5m x 2.5m, or 3m x 3m plant-to-plant spacing. It may also be cultivated alongside farmed crops with spacings of 4m x 4m or 5m x 5m.
Fill this 45 x 45 x 45 cm trench with a combination of FYM, Fertilizers, and soil. Weeding might be done in three activities in the first year, two duties in the second year, and one activity in the third year.
The first decrease should be finished in the seventh/eighth year, followed by the second reduction in the thirteenth/fourteenth year. Rainfall, especially after the main shower, is beneficial to planting.
Every year for up to three years, two parts of manure (during the long months of August and September) at 50 g per plant of NPK (15:15:15) might be applied. Water systems should be employed in general to help plant development during pressure times. Teak is quite susceptible to helpless seepage.
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Control of infectious diseases, insects, and pests
The ranchers were plagued by a host of pests, bugs, and illnesses. It decreases both the woody nature of teak and its commercial value. Young estates are severely harmed by the teak defoliator and skeletonizer (Hyblaea pure and Eutectona machaeralis).
Polyporous zonal root deterioration is also widespread in the estate. Pink infection growth causes ulcers and barks peeling. Premature defoliation is induced by fine buildup produced by Olivea tectonae and Uncinula tectonic.
Yet, if the environment is conducive to tree growth, the probability of disease or insect assault is minimized. After then, it is vital to attempt preventive and control strategies to assure high-quality harvests.
Calotropis procera, Datura metal, and Azadirachta indica leaf concentrations were shown to be the most efficient against teak skeletonization. Employ ecologically friendly bug sprays that are non-toxic and have no detrimental environmental consequences.
The Advantages of Teak Tree Planting
Teak manor increases production while decreasing soil degradation in high-precipitation locations. Its wood, when utilized to produce high-quality furniture, may provide ranchers with a competitive edge. The initial expense is considerable, but after the seventh year, it begins to generate some returns.
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