Onion Farming In India 2023

Onion Farming In India 2023: Onion is a member of the Amaryllidaceae family, with the scientific name Allium cepa. India is second in terms of area, but third in terms of total onion output worldwide. The total area under cultivation of onion in the globe is around 19,77,000 hectares, yielding 2,79,18,000 mt. North America, Japan, Spain, the Netherlands, Canada, and other major producing nations, while India grows it in Gujarat, Punjab, and Haryana. In Maharashtra, around 54,600 hectares are under cultivation.

Onion Farming In India 2023
Onion Farming In India 2023

Climate and Soil

A pH of 6.5 to 8 is excellent for soil. The soil should be adequately aerated. Heavy dirt should be avoided. It may be cultivated in a variety of climates. It cannot, however, withstand extreme temperatures. It enjoys moderate temperatures in both summer and winter. Brief days are ideal for bulb development. It grows well at heights ranging from 1000 to 1300 meters above mean sea level. Onion grows best on well-drained loamy soils that are rich in humus and have a high potash content. The crop planted on sandy or loose soil does soil, the bulbs produced are distorted, and many bulbs are damaged and bruised during harvesting, so they do not store well in storage.

Pusa Red, Pusa Ratnar, Pusa White Round, Patna Red, Poona Red, Arka Pragati, Arka Niketa, Patna White, Bombay White, and Nasik Red are some of the varieties.

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Planting Habits for onion farming

It may be grown as an annual or biennial. The smooth, glaucous scope develops to be 1 to 3 feet tall. The scope or stem is hollow and bulging above the base. The leaves are likewise enlarged at the base and hollow. Flowers are terminal, umbel, white or pale blue, and many, developing bulbels. Like the stem, the underground bulb is underdeveloped. Bulbels are used in the propagation process.

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Propagation of onion farming

Onion is a kind of bulb vegetable. From October through November, onion seeds are planted at nurseries. From September through October in south and eastern India. From March through June on the highlands. One acre requires 8-10 kilograms of seeds. Throughout December and January, seedlings are sown. Early transplanting produces more. Bulb and bulb lets are also seeded, but need 1000-1200 kg/hectare.

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From the middle of October through the end of November, the nursery sells onion seeds. From March through June, the seed is planted in the hills. Onion (seedlings) should be planted 15 X 10 or 20 X 10cm apart.

Onion F.Y.M. 200-250 g/hectare 45-65 Kg N/hectare

40-60 kg P/hectare

60-100 kg K/hectare

Irrigation: Throughout growth, irrigation should be consistent and continuous; otherwise, dryness may cause the breaking of the outer scales. As the tops develop and begin to fall, irrigation is turned off. Employ F1 hybrids to increase yield.

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Onion farming Pest Control

  • Spray Malathion or Nuvacron (0.1%) on thrips
  • Borer- Spray Endosulfan (0.1%)
  • Add Thimet 10G on the soil and spray Malathion (0.05%).


Difolatan (0.1%) or Dithane M-45 (0.2%) may be used to treat downy mildew.

75% Smut – Spray Captan, Biltox, or Thiram


Onion yields 25 to 30 tons per acre, while garlic yields 6 to 10 tons. When storing bulbs, they must be properly cured.

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Many variables influence onion crop storage conditions. Some of the most significant are mentioned here.

1. Variety selection

2. Fertilizers and water management

3. onion drying

4. Real storage conditions

5. Storage building construction

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1. Variety selection

The bulk of onion crops produced during the rabi season are preserved. This may be kept for 4 to 5 months for onion farming. In the event of storage, variety selection is critical, and N 2-4-1, Agrifound bright red, and Arka Niketan were discovered to be appropriate varieties with low percentage losses.

2. Fertilizers and water management

Fertilizer doses, fertilizer type, and irrigation all impact onion storage capacity and shelf life. Organic matter enhances onion storage capacity. The optimum fertilizer rate is 150:50:50, N:P: K kg per hectare. If irrigation is required, the crop should be watered according to the soil tag.

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3. Onion drying

Shortly after harvest, the onion should be dried for 8 to 10 days to eliminate excess heat and give the onion a richer color.

4. Real storage conditions

Temperature and humidity are significant storage factors. Temperatures between 25 and 30 degrees Celsius and relative humidity levels between 65 and 70% are ideal. High humidity and warmth promote fungal development. On the contrary, a reduction in humidity increases respiration rate, resulting in weight loss. Temperatures are higher in May and relative humidity is lower, which influences weight loss. In the case of July-September, the temperature drops, resulting in onion sprouting. To prevent these issues, a suitable storage structure must be built.

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5. Building a storage structure for onion farming

  • The storage building should be built 30cm above ground, with a cement foundation to prevent contact with soil moisture.
  • Sugarcane waste is utilized for roofing, and asbestos sheet is used to keep the temperature down.
  • The middle height for onion farming should be optimal (120cm) for proper aeration, providing a sloppy structure
  • It is important to keep stored onions away from direct sunlight, which gives them a nice color and enhances the structure of the onion. 20kg of onion may be stored in a 1ft3 space.
  • Bavistin + 15ml neuron in 10 liters of water, which aids in pest management.
  • Spraying 10g before and after storage might be used to stabilize the storage structure.
  • The project should cost between Rs.20,000 and Rs.25,000 for the above-mentioned structure.
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